joan rivers plastic surgery before and after


Plastic surgery is a branch of surgery whereby damaged or missing skin and body tissues are repaired or replaced due to injury, medical conditions and birth disorders. Cosmetic surgery, the most popular form of plastic surgery, is actually the main aim of the procedure. The primary purpose is to try and bring back the functioning of the body tissue in question to as normal as possible. Appearance comes second.

Why plastic surgery?

Correcting areas where cancerous cells have been removed. The most common body parts for this include; the face, neck and the breasts.

Repairing deformity caused by birth issues such as big growths on the arms, legs, the face that become too distractive to work normally with.

Replacement and correction of parts that have been badly injured or ripped off during accidents such as fires, vehicle accidents and other injuries.

Used to enhance appearance and beauty thereby boosting the self-esteem of the person.

Plastic surgery techniques

Depending on the condition being treated, plastic surgery can happen in an array of techniques. However, there are three main types to which all sorts of surgeries can be narrowed.

Skin Grafts – This is a procedure that involves replacing part or the whole of the part that has been damaged with a muscle tissue from another area. This one is safe as the new tissue on the replaced part comes from the same person’s body; hence the risk of contracting diseases is low. The donor body parts include; the back of the thigh and the buttock.

Skin Flap Surgery – this one involves the transferring a living piece of tissue, including its blood vessels, from one body part to another one that has been damaged. The reason behind the name ‘skin flap’ is because the replacement tissue remains attached to its original place as the procedure takes place.

Tissue Expansion – to reconstruct the nearby damaged area, muscles from surrounding tissues are stretched towards it. This way, the body is said to ‘grow’ extra skin.

These three are the main methods but generally, there are a lot other techniques through which surgeons perform the operation. They include; Camouflage Make-up, Vacuum Closure and use of Cream and Prosthetic Devices.

Plastic surgery risks

It has not always turned out to be a successive operation once it is commenced on. Some end being total mess-up, even worsening the bad situation. Giving credit where it’s due, though, most of the procedures end up as planned. The extent of risk largely depends on the scale of the surgery, medical history of the patient and the doctor’s experience. The common risks include; infections from donor to recipient and failure of tissue compatibility.